Pão de Queijo (Eng: cheese bread roll) verified reciPL

A verified implementation of Pão de Queijo

You’ll love the artifact, and so the reviewers! You might even win a distinguished award!


  • 250g fermented tapioca flour (aka fermented cassava flour) [ 1 ] - This item is hard to find but it’s mandatory. You can’t write your proofs without it.
  • 85g tapioca flour (aka cassava flour)
  • 85g Parmesan cheese (buy a good quality one, not those cheap ‘Kraft’ style)
  • 250g of Swiss cheese (Note: if you visit a Brazilian supermarket, ask for ‘queijo meia cura’). The idea here is to use a slightly maturated cheese. DO NOT USE CHEDDAR. It’s forbidden and leads to automatic rejection of the artifact.
  • 50g olive oil or sunflower oil
  • 200g 3% milk
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 1 large egg


Grate both types of cheese; set them aside.

In a large bowl, add both types of tapioca flour; mix them with a spoon. In a pan, add the oil and the milk. Medium heat; as soon as it starts to boil, add the contents to the tapioca flour mix bowl (you literally scald it). Gently mix it with a spoon. Be careful, it’s hot! Mix it as much as you can with the spoon; let the mix cool down for a few minutes

It’s time to use your hands. Inside the bowl, go on mixing the contents until it becomes nearly uniform (it may take a few minutes). When the dough reaches room temperature, add the egg. Mix it again, incorporating the egg in the dough.

Finally, add the cheese. Mix it again, folding the dough and ensuring the cheese sticks in every region of your manifold. Make sure it’s uniform.[ 2 ]

Pre-heat your oven to 180C (approx 350F).

Grab chunks of 55g from the dough and roll them with your hands (like a little sphere). Put them in a non-sticky baking tray; ensure there is a few centimeters between the rolls. Take the tray to the oven, 180C, for approx. 30min (or until they reach a nice golden colour at the top).

The artifact is ready and verified!

Useful hints

[ 1 ] You can find fermented tapioca flour in many Latin American Markets. You can go there, and if someone speaks Spanish or Portuguese, show them this set of 2 words: “Polvilho Azedo”.

[ 2 ] This is a gluten-free reciPL! That means you can tear it as needed (topologists might be upset, tho). To avoid hurting ppl’s work, you can opt-in for folding the dough, instead of tearing it when incorporating the cheese.

Appendix, Theorems and Artifact

Too many rolls in the end? Put them in a bag and freeze them. They should be good for 2-3 weeks.

Tip: Another reciPL that uses fermented cassava flour is the vegan gnocci - there, I promised to teach you how to make pão de quejo. The proof is now here. Qed.


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